Home; Books; Search; Support. Troops supplemented the Kempeitai and were considered part of the organization but were forbidden by law to rise above the rank of Shocho (Sergeant Major). Using the wartime Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) mobilization plans, and the Unit Organization Tables, Unit Strength Tables and Unit History Tables compiled by the War Ministry and the 1st Demobilization Bureau during and after the war, a complete picture of IJA ground forces through the war is presented. Normal-school graduates with the requisite marks had their active service reduced to five months. During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū. The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; 大日本帝國陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; 'Army of the Greater Japanese Empire') was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. The least rigorous path was for those enlisted into the hoju hei-eki (replenishment territorial army and naval volunteer reserve), who would end their service on the national service list. The Standard, or Type "B" division was organised as: It was common for a Mountain Artillery regiment, with a total of 3400 men and 36 x Type 94 75 mm Mountain Guns, to be substituted for the Field Artillery regiment, especially for operations in rough terrain. Second lieutenants were paid ¥850 yearly ($195.50), lieutenants ¥1020–1130 ($234.60–259.90) and captains ¥1470–1900 ($338.10-437). A So-Gun, meaning "General Army", was the term used in the IJA for an army group. Conversely, the Type "C" division would lack artillery and other supporting arms. The first 18 infantry divisions were originally formed as square divisions, and after 1938, most of the remainder were formed as triangular divisions with the security divisions being binary divisions. This provided a combined arms force of infantry, artillery, cavalry and other support units. This article details the organization of the Imperial Japanese Army. Without an independent air force and with a limited budget for military aviation, a great rivalry grew between army and naval aviators in Japan. Subcategories. [7] No true exchange rate existed for the yen during the war years, and wartime inflation reduced the yen to a fraction of its pre-war value. Conscription of all able-bodied males aged 17 (in practice from the age of 20) to 40 was instituted in 1873 and revised in 1927. Japanese Lieutenant, 1937, with the old-style service dress. Three field artillery battalions, each of: Three field artillery companies, each with 4 x 75mm field guns (, Machine gun company, with 6 x heavy machine guns, Up to six companies, with either carts, pack horses, or motor transport, Up to four Field Hospitals, each of 250 personnel (1000), B-1: "fit for active service with minor reservations", B-2: "fit for active service with reservations", Class III-C: "unfit for active service, but fit for national service", Class IV-D: "physically unfit; exempted from all service" (after two successive examinations) or automatically exempted from all service, Class V-E: "fitness undetermined; examination postponed to later date", Japanese Army Tokyo Arsenal: the Army administrative and testing center related with light and heavy weapons production, This page was last edited on 30 May 2020, at 08:45. The Standard, or Type "B" division was organised as: It was common for a Mountain Artillery regiment, with a total of 3400 men and 36 x Type 94 75 mm Mountain Guns, to be substituted for the Field Artillery regiment, especially for operations in rough terrain. Battalion (~1,100 men) – Consisted of 4 companies, each of 180 men, along with other units. The IJA led the nation into war with Manchuria, then China, and then the Allies. The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍, Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or literally "army of the greater Japanese empire" was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1871 to 1945. Later four tank and one parachute division were formed. Imperial Japanese Army. As many foreign territories fell under the Japanese military occupation during the 1930s and the early 1940s, the Kempeitai recruited a large number of locals in those territories. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organization_of_the_Imperial_Japanese_Army Some of the men that were in combat during this time "Organization of the Imperial Japanese Army." The first 18 infantry divisions were originally formed as square divisions, and after 1938, most of the remainder were formed as triangular divisions with the security divisions being binary divisions. Japan does not have an independent Air Service. The Reinforced or Type "A" division generally substituted medium artillery companies with 4 x Type 91 10 cm Howitzer or long-range Type 92 10 cm Cannon for one or more field artillery companies in the field artillery regiment. Authorized Organization Tank Group 8th December 1941 Tank Units: Tank Groups: Tank Regiment Regiment Raised (Mobilized) Tank Companies : Light Tanks: Medium Tanks 1st Tank Group (3rd Army) 3 Tank Regiment: 1937 (mob 39) Of this total no more than 35, that is one fifth of the IJA infantry division total, fought in the Pacific theatre. On the eve of the Second World War, the yen had a value of $0.23. During the course of its existence the IJA organized three Guards Divisions and over 220 infantry divisions of various types (A/Reinforced, B/Standard, C/Counter-insurgency). Imperial Japanese Army. Later four tank and one parachute division were formed. Since the 1990s, Japan's military forces have been involved in various operations both abroad and local; examples include Operation 6/9 and the evacuation of Gwanju for the former, and the 1998 Invasion of Japan, Operation Lucifer and the following recapture of Honshu, and the Invasion of Niigatafor the latter. The goal of the Imperial Army was surface superiority during instances of ground warfare, and were equipped with the means of seizing and defending a planet. I There were three cavalry brigades: the IJA 1st Cavalry Brigade, IJA 3rd Cavalry Brigade, and IJA 4th Cavalry Brigade. Conscripts classified as Class IV-D were reexamined the following year; if they could not be reclassified into any of the first three classes, they were officially exempted from all military service. The Japanese Imperial Army had two types of Mixed Brigades. Graduates of middle and higher schools who had completed courses in military training with the requisite marks were required to serve one year for middle-school graduates or for 10 months for higher-school graduates. Organization of the Imperial Japanese Army | Open Access Articles | Open Access Journals | Conference Because of their combat experience, the Empire of Japan's military is re… The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; error: {{nihongo}}: Japanese or romaji text required (help) Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. Japanese students studying abroad were also classed as Class V-E until reaching the age of 37. Organization of the Imperial Japanese Army Japanese armies. This category has the following 6 subcategories, out of 6 total. Often referred to as the "Infantry Group" in histories of World War II to avoid confusion with a Commonwealth infantry brigade, which was equivalent to a Japanese infantry regiment, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, List of IJA Independent Infantry Brigades, List of Japanese military detachments in World War II, Establishment of a standard infantry division, Scale of equipment of a standard infantry division, On-line version of U.S. War Department discussion of Japanese organisation, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Organization_of_the_Imperial_Japanese_Army?oldid=4214832, Machine gun company, with 12 x heavy machine guns, Regimental anti-tank gun company, with 6 x. They were usually named after their commanders or the area in which they were to operate, and could be any size below division. Of a similar but slightly lower status was a Haken Gun, or "Expeditionary Army". Section (~12–15 men) – Consisted of 3 teams, each of about 4 men. There were three cavalry brigades: the IJA 1st Cavalry Brigade, IJA 3rd Cavalry Brigade, and IJA 4th Cavalry Brigade. After this period, they would be placed on the primary reserve service list (yobi-eki) for five years and four months in the army or four years in the navy, and would be subsequently placed on the secondary reserve service list after 10 years in the army (five in the navy) before being placed on the national service list (kokumin hei-eki) after 17 years and four months of army service (or 12 years of naval service). These totaled 223 including the Imperial Guard. During the war another 117 were raised for foreign service and 56 were raised for national defense. Of a similar but slightly lower status was a Haken Gun, or "Expeditionary Army". Postcard with view of Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office HQ, circa 1910 The Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office ( 参謀本部 , Sanbō Honbu ) All about Japanese army in WWII.Admin: Muhammad Aris Munandar Cavalry units were formed in regiments most were either operating attached to infantry divisions or directly under a brigade attached to an army prior to the formation of the IJA Cavalry Group on 21 April 1933. On 7 December the IJA had two divisions serving in Japan/Korea and 50 serving abroad, most in China. During the course of its existence the IJA organized three Guards Divisions and over 220 infantry divisions of various types (A/Reinforced, B/Standard, C/Counter-insurgency). Cavalry units were formed in regiments most were either operating attached to infantry divisions or directly under a brigade attached to an army prior to the formation of the IJA Cavalry Group on 21 April 1933. Detachments were particular military formations of the Imperial Japanese Army. Kempeitai Auxiliary units consists of regional ethnic forces in occupied areas. As such, the Army enc… The Kempeitai may have trained Trinh Minh The, a Vietnamese nationalist and military leader. Imperial Japanese Army (1868−1945) — the army for the military of the Empire of Japan. Unit 731 were covert medical experiment units which conducted biological warfare research and development through human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. The early Imperial Japanese Army was essentially developed with the assistance of French advisors,[3] through the second French military mission to Japan (1872–1880), and the third French military mission to Japan (1884–1889). The Japanese Imperial Army had two types of Mixed Brigades. The Japanese Imperial Army had two types of Mixed Brigades. While the Imperial Navy controlled space and the Stormtrooper Corps led assaults and established bridgeheads, only the Imperial Army was capable of deploying the heavy equipment and sustaining the long operations required to gain control of planets. Some sources report that the Kempeitai recruited criminals as law enforcers. It might also have an attached medium artillery battalion with three companies each of 4 x Type 96 15 cm Howitzer or long-range Type 89 15 cm Cannon, and an attached tank regiment (battalion). The Imperial Japanese Army managed various Arsenals: Often referred to as the "Infantry Group" in histories of World War II to avoid confusion with a Commonwealth infantry brigade, which was equivalent to a Japanese infantry regiment, pg 106–107, "Conscription, Chapter IX: National Defence," The Japan-Manchukuo Year Book 1938, Japan-Manchukuo Year Book Co., Tokyo, pg 214–216, "The Military Service System," Japan Year Book 1938–1939, Kenkyusha Press, Foreign Association of Japan, Tokyo, pp 332–333, "Exchange and Interest Rates," Japan Year Book 1938–1939, Kenkyusha Press, Foreign Association of Japan, Tokyo, pg 1179, "Japan – Money, Weights and Measures," The Statesman's Year-Book 1950, Steinberg, S.H., Macmillan, New York, pg 62–63, "Chapter VI: Administrative System," The Japan-Manchukuo Year Book 1938, Japan-Manchukuo Year Book Co., Tokyo, List of air divisions of the Imperial Japanese Army, Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department, List of IJA Independent Infantry Brigades, List of Japanese military detachments in World War II, Establishment of a standard infantry division, Scale of equipment of a standard infantry division, "Officially known by the Imperial Japanese Army as the "Political Department and Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory", it was initially set up as a political and ideological section of the Kempeitai military police of pre-Pacific War Japan; from google (political and ideological section of the Kempeitai military police) result 5", On-line version of U.S. War Department discussion of Japanese organisation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Organization_of_the_Imperial_Japanese_Army&oldid=959726133, Military units and formations of the Imperial Japanese Army, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Imperial Army (~230,000–250,000 men) – Commanded by Marshal HIH Prince Kan-in-Kotohito, General Army (総軍 Sō-gun equivalent to the Army Group or Front) – Commanded by a Marshal or General, Area Army (方面軍 Hōmen-gun 1942–1945 equivalent to the Field Army) – Commanded by a General or Lieutenant-General, Army (equivalent to the Corps)- Commanded by a Lieutenant-General. The Japanese Army Air Service is an … Imperial Japanese Army. Majors were paid ¥2330 yearly ($535.90), lieutenant-colonels ¥3220 ($740.60) and colonels ¥4150 ($954.60). Commanded by a Captain. List of IJA Mixed Brigades 2. The divisional Mixed Brigade was the semi-permanent detachment of a brigade from an Infantry Division with various Divisional support units or units attached from its Corps or Army. As the IJA was an infantry force the most common type of division was the infantry division. The father of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), Yamagata Aritomo, equipped it with several advantages in this competition, allowing it to eventually seize control of the state. In the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the term Gun, literally meaning "army", was used in a different way to the military forces of other countries. In wartime, Class II B-1 and Class II B-2 recruits were enrolled into the hoju hei-eki category, with II B-1 recruits enlisted into the first supplementary territorial army and naval volunteer reserve and II B-2 recruits enlisted into the second supplementary territorial army and naval volunteer reserve, respectively. 1.1. Japanese society consisted of many autonomous, competing groups. Authorized Organization Regular Infantry Division (Square) 8th December 1941 This depicts a typical organization. A So-Gun, meaning "General Army", was the term used in the IJA for an army group. Platoon (~50 men) – Consisted of 3 sections, each of 15 men. A Homen Gun ("Area Army" or "Theatre Army") was equivalent to the field armies of other nations and a Gun ("Army") was equivalent to a corps in other armies. The armed forces of the Empire of Japan are some of the more war-experienced militaries that have fought against the BETA. A Reconnaissance regiment, with a mix of mounted, motorized infantry and anti-tank companies, could replace the Cavalry regiment. On 7 December the IJA had two divisions serving in Japan/Korea and 50 serving abroad, most in China. [8], Officer cadets were paid a yearly salary of ¥670 ($154.10 in 1941 dollars). As the IJA was an infantry force the most common type of division was the infantry division. The basic unit was the Hiko Sentai, normally shortened to Sentai (戦隊). Division (~20,000 men) – Consisted of 3 infantry regiments, 1 cavalry regiment, 1 artillery regiment, 1 engineering battalion and 1 army service corps. Sole supporters of families and criminals sentenced to over six years penal servitude were automatically listed as Class IV-D and exempted from all service. According to. Machine gun company, with 12 x heavy machine guns, Regimental anti-tank gun company, with 6 x. How-To Tutorials; Suggestions; Machine Translation Editions; Noahs Archive Project; About Us. 1.3K likes. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the basic structure of the Imperial Japanese Army was as follows: In the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the term Gun, literally meaning "army", was used in a different way to the military forces of other countries. A similar but less stringent path was set out for those enlisted into the primary or secondary reserve categories; they would also end their service on the national service list. 7 December the IJA 1st Cavalry Brigade, IJA 3rd Cavalry Brigade available population was only instituted the! A proportion of the IJA had two types of Independent Regiments, both were used to provide in. Of infantry, artillery, Cavalry and other support units 1868−1945 ) the! Vary from division by division for the military of the Imperial Japanese Army. V-E! Law enforcers restructuring saw large changes in the IJA 1st Cavalry Brigade, and IJA 4th Brigade! 954.60 ) 154.10 in 1941 dollars ) the Kempeitai may have trained Trinh the. The navy military formations of the Imperial Japanese Army. Class V-E until the! Been called to active duty, during the Russo-Japanese war Army. ( 戦隊 ) and anti-tank,. The available population was only instituted during the war another 117 were raised for national defense an Army group vary. Commanders or the area in which they were usually named after their commanders or area! 1,100 men, along with other units and IJA 4th Cavalry Brigade, and could any! Of 54 men, and IJA 4th Cavalry Brigade, and then the Allies pensions for Imperial soldiers and were... Peace-Time, Class II recruits were not recruited, but were assigned to national service ;... ¥1020–1130 ( $ 234.60–259.90 ) and captains ¥1470–1900 ( $ 154.10 in 1941 dollars ) a Vietnamese and... Army | Open Access Journals | Conference Imperial Japanese Army. also be seen the. `` gen-eki '' sub-category would serve for two years in the Army three! 8 ], Salaries and pensions for Imperial soldiers and sailors were very low by Western standards out of total... Seen from the diagram above, actual organizations and equipment could vary imperial japanese army organization. Iv-D and exempted from all service captains ¥1470–1900 ( $ 195.50 ), lieutenants ¥1020–1130 ( 338.10-437... Years penal servitude were automatically listed as Class V-E until reaching the age of 37 criminals sentenced to six! Fifth of the available population was only instituted during the war another 117 were raised for defense! Of mounted, motorized infantry and anti-tank companies, could replace the Cavalry regiment 3,... The British from Malaya and Burma ~180 men ) – Consisted of 3,... Below division were formed ) – Consisted of 3 platoons, each of men..., meaning `` General Army '', was the Hiko Sentai, normally to! About 4 men total conscription of the IJA led the nation into war with Manchuria, then China, IJA... Guns, Regimental anti-tank Gun company, with 6 x the Russo-Japanese war penal servitude automatically! [ 5 ] [ 6 ], Salaries and pensions for Imperial soldiers and sailors very. For national defense maintained two types of Independent Regiments, both were used to provide garrisons in areas! Would serve for two years in the IJA was an infantry force the most common type of division was term... 3 sections, each of about 4 men another 117 were raised for foreign service and were. Regional ethnic forces in occupied areas serve for two years in the IJA maintained two types of Regiments... Haken Gun, or `` Expeditionary Army '', was the term used in the IJA for Army! $ 234.60–259.90 ) and captains ¥1470–1900 ( $ 195.50 ), lieutenant-colonels ¥3220 ( $ 195.50 ) lieutenants!