Town Planning In Indus Valley Civilization, Religion in the Indus Valley Civilization, History of India, History of Ancient India, Medieval History of India, Modern History of India, History Notes. Polychrome pottery is rare and mainly comprised small vases decorated with geometric patterns mostly in red, black and green and less frequently in white and yellow. But in the Harappan phase they were not ploughed but dug up. Rangpur in Ahmedabad, near river Meedar 5. Copper rhino, copper chariot and copper elephant found at Daimabad. Indus Valley Civilization Cities or City Map. Next Question > 3,000. Evidence for the use of horse comes from a doubtful terracotta figurine of a horse. Around 1750 BC Mohenjodaro and Harappa declined but the Harappan culture in the other cities faded out more gradually. The unique feature of the site is its division into two parts as in other cities but three sections. Geometrical patterns, circles, squares and triangles and figures of animals, birds, snakes or fish are frequent motifs found in Harappan pottery. Kalibangan. Located at the centre of the citadel it is remarkable for beautiful brick work. This is … It flourished around 2,500 BC, in the western part of South Asia, in contemporary Pakistan and Western India. Some Indus people buried their dead in graves others practised urn-burial. The Indus people gave to the world its earliest sites, its first urban civilization, its first town planning, its first architecture in stone and brick as protection against floods, its first example of sanitary engineering and drainage works. Kalibangan History in Hindi Kalibanga sabhyata in Hindi Indus Valley Civilization in Hindi. The site was discovered by Luigi Pio Tessitori, an Italian Indologist and linguist.After Independence in 1952, Amlānand Ghosh identified the site as part of Harappan Civilization and marked it for excavation. The great granary found here is largest building measuring 150 feet (length) x 50 feet (breadth). The prehistoric and pre-Mauryan character of Indus Valley Civilization was first identified by Luigi Tessitori at this site. Evidence of sea and river transport by ships and boats in several seals and terracotta models have been found apart from the dockyard at Lothal. It shares almost all the common features of Indus cities such as town planning, grid pattern, drainage system and elaborates fortification. Lothal, the dockyard site of the Indus Valley Civilization, is situated in A. Gujarat B. Punjab C. Pakistan D. Haryana. Others attribute it to some kind of depression in the land which caused floods. History of Chennai encompasses the events of the south Indian history, colonialism and then the massive growth of the city during the 20th century. It has evidence of having both proto Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. Harappan city with three divisions namely-citadel, middle town and lower town was at Dholavira. Mohenjodaro (Sind) is situated on the right bank of the Indus. Lanes were 1.8 mts wide and the roads were 3.6, 5.4 and 7.2 mts wide. Many ancient scripts like Phoenician, various Aramaics and Hemiaretic are connected to or even derived from Harappan. It consists chiefly of wheel made wares both plain and painted. 3. They also held the bull sacred. The Harappan way of making baked pottery, bricks, beads, jewellery and textiles was adopted in the later civilization. It was chiefly made and consists of both plain and painted ware and plain variety being more common. Their rediscovery some 60 years later led to the excavations between 1921 and 1934 under the direction of M S Vats. Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) is the beginning of the history of India. The history of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as Harappan Civilization. Another well-known building was the Great Bath. Important Cities and Sites of Indus Valley Civilization • So far archaeologists have come across more than 1000 sites belonging to this civilization. It is distinguished by its exclusive fire altars and is considered as worlds earliest indicated ploughed field. Indus Valley Civilization (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. Kalibangan flourished for at least 450-600 years. But this theory is partly true. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION SITES So far nearly 1000 sites of nearly, mature and late phases of the Indus Civilization are known in the sub-continent. were the most prominent cities of this civilization. Majority of these sculptures are made of soft stone like steatite, limestone or alabaster. It was nearly rectangular with the longer axis running from north to south. Historians are of the view that the decline of the Indus Civilization was not the result of a single event; it was a slow decline and a result of combination of factors. It was surrounded by a massive brick wall probably as flood protection. A few bronze sculptures have also been discovered at Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Chanhudaro and Daimabad. Important Sites • In India: Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Lothal, Dholavira, Rangpur, Surkotda (Gujarat), Indus Valley civilization Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs) & Answers QUESTIONS Indus Valley civilization Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs)& Answers 1 Mohenjodaro is also called as : A mound of the Great B mount of the Survivors C mount of the Living D mount of the Dead Answer: mount of the Dead 2 Identify the site where the Great… The cities show evidence of an advanced sense of planning and organization. According to Giosan et al. He also finds close connection between the Brahmi and the Indus script. Lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. In the lower town a particular building identified by Wheeler as the temple has a monumental entrance and twin stairways leading to a raised platform on which was found one of the rare stone sculptures of a seated figure. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. It was divided into 3 parts. Kalibangan. The script of the Indus Valley Civilization is A. Kharosthi B. Undeciphered C. Brahmi D. Tamil. Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Banawali, Kalibangan, Lothal, Chahundaro, etc. The town was extremely well planned. The earliest evidence of surgery was found from Kalibangan. The street ran straight and at right angles to each other following the grid system. Harappan script is regarded as pictographic since its signs represent birds, fish, varieties of the human form etc. Chanhudaro lies on the left bank of the Indus about 130 km south of Mohenjodaro. Its floor is made of burnt bricks set in gypsum and mortar. A trip to Mohenjo daro museum. Kalibangan, ancient site of the Indus valley civilization, in northern Rajasthan state, northwestern India.The site contains both pre-Harappan and Harappan remains, and therein can be seen the transition between the two cultures.Although the pre-Harappan culture worked copper and produced pottery, it had no writing system, and its ruins lack the orderly layout and use of … The Harappan pottery is bright or dark red and uniformly sturdy and well baked. But there is very little evidence on this opinion. Four unique bronzes of elephant, rhinoceros, buffalo and chariot each weighing 60 kgs from the recently excavated site of Daimabad have thrown further light on the bronze work of the Harappans. In the beginning, it was called “The Indus Valley Civilization”, due to the discovery of more and more sited far away from the Indus valley this civilization was later named “Indus Civilization”. Copyright © Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. All rights reserved including the right to reproduce the contents in whole or in part in any form or medium without the express written permission of Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. Amusement parks in Kolkata are entertaining the people of Kolkata on Saturdays and Sundays, after having a hectic schedule in weekdays. The term “Indus Valley Civilization” was first used by John Marshall. Representations of ships are found on seals found at Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Several sticks inscribed with measure marks have been discovered. According to Rajaram the script is both pictorial and alphabetic; alphabets are favoured to the pictures in the later stages. 1. Some of the evidence of the devastation by floods has been found at Mohenjodaro and Lothal but there is no such evidence in respect of other sites like Kalibangan. Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan) is located on the left bank of the Ravi. Today I'm revisiting my trip to Kalibangan where I had the opportunity to view many of the structures and objects that contained so much history! There were 27 blocks of solid blocks of solid bricks in granary. Kalibangan. Stock breeding was important in Indus culture. Archaeologists discovered two platforms with fire altar suggesting the practice of cult of sacrifice. Flood-supported farming led to large agricultural surpluses, which in turn supported the development of cities. Numerous articles used as weights have been discovered. It might have served the purpose of ritual bathing vital to any religious ceremony in India. Harappans were inventors of linear system of measurement with a unit equal to one angula of the Arthasastra. A small pot was discovered at Chanhudaro which was probably an inkpot. A number of stone sculptures have been discovered at Mohenjodaro, two at Harappa, one at Dabarkot and one at Mundigak (Afganistan). Presence of a fortified citadel in almost all urban centres. In this article, we have discussed some of the important points of Indus Valley Civilization for the UPSC exam. Archaeologists made the discovery that the people of Indus Valley Civilization, even from the early Harappa periods, had knowledge of medicine and surgery. But in the Harappan phase they were not ploughed but dug up. Although the theory of ecological factors for the decline of the Harappan civilization is latest yet it does not give us complete answer. The various occupations in which people were engaged spanned a wide range. Harappa Civilization in Hindi. The people lived a very comfortable life in well built houses and baths. (2012), the slow southward migration of the monsoons across Asia initially allowed the Indus Valley villages to develop by taming the floods of the Indus and its tributaries. A second figure of comparable size also comes from Mohenjodaro. But it had the most efficient civic administration and effective town planning system. It spreads over the region of Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province, Baluchistan, Rajasthan, U.P, Gujarat and some parts of South India. (c) Kalibangan was located on the bank of river Ghaggar. Even the maritime trade relations with Central and West Asia were started by Harappan people. In Egypt and Mesopotamia dried or baked bricks were used. It was only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard. In the citadel the most impressive buildings were the granaries which were store -houses. Geographical extent of Indus Valley Civilization. It was not the Aryans who brought civilization to India which is rather untenable stand taken by Indo-Germanic scholars who seem to think that anything good in the world could have come from Aryan Race. The best specimen is the little figure of a nude dancing girl with right hand on hips, arms loaded with bangles, head slightly tilted and covered with curly hair, the eyes large and half closed. Important Sites of Indus Valley Civilization. The plain pottery is more common than the painted ware. The numerous specimens of pottery, seals, bracelets etc reveal that arts and crafts florished. The Indus Valley city of Kalibangan was excavated in the 1960s. Lothal is at the head of the Gulf of Cambay. The Aryans were more skilled at warfare and were powerful than the Harappans. Use of standard weight… Kalibangan is an ancient site of the Indus Valley Civilization in northern Rajasthan state. In addition to this we come across numerous symbols of the phallus and female sex organs made of stone which may have been objects of worship. Goldsmiths made jewellery of silver, gold and precious stones and metal workers made tools and implements in copper and bronze. The number of signs of the Harappan script is known to be between 400 and 600 of which 40 or 60 are basic and the rest are their variants. Indus Valley Civilization-Lothal and Kalibangan Get top class preparation for IAS right from your home: Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus : point-by-point for high retention. The Harappan pottery includes goblets, dishes, basins, flasks, narrow necked vases, cylindrical bottles, tumblers, corn measures, spouted vases and a special type of dish on a stand which was a offering stand or incense burner. Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India`s fourth largest city. Indus Valley Civilization is the one of the oldest ancient civilizations of the world.Indus River Valley Civilization was discovered by the archaeologists in the 1920s. Jha claims to have deciphered about 3500 inscriptions on seals. Some ascribe it to decreasing fertility on account of the increasing salinity of the soil caused by the expansion of the neighbouring desert. • Out of these, only 6 can be regarded as cities: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro,Chanhu-daro, Lothal, Kalibangan and Banwali. The Harappan people traded with the people of Sumer and with the towns lying along the Persian Gulf. Important centers of Harappan Civilization are Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Dholavira, Rakhingarhi, Kot Diji, Chanhu-daro, etc. Several methods were used by people for the decoration of pottery. In the south-west of Mohenjodaro there was a granary which covers 55 x 37 mtrs area. Perforated pottery has a large hole at the bottom and small holes all over the wall and was probably used for straining liquor. Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age Civilization that flourished between 2500-1750 BC in the north western parts of India and present-day Pakistan.. The streets were very wide and the houses built of burnt bricks lined both sides of the street. It is one of two Indus cities which have both proto-Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. Kalibangan pottery has close resemblance to the pottery of the Hakra ware in Cholistan, to other Early Harappan pottery from the Indus Valley Civilization and to the pottery of the Integration Era. The potters also worked in this part. It is located within the citadel and next to the Great Bath. Harappans used weights and measures for commercial as well as building purposes. The workers lived together in small quarters near the factory. The variants are formed by adding different accents, inflexions or other letters to the former. Impressions of cloth are noticeable on some of the sealing found here. At that time the ASI was conducting excavations at Harappa, but they were unaware of the significance of the ruins. Archaeological discoveries show that this culture evolved from the earlier rural communities. Important Cities and Sites of Indus Valley Civilization: So far archaeologists have come across more than 1000 sites belonging to this civilization Out of these, only 6 can be regarded as cities: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Chanhu-daro, Lothal, Kalibangan and Banwali Various causes have been suggested for this. The vast mounds at Harappa were first reported by Masson in 1826 and visited by Cunningham in 1853 and 1873. Sir John Marshall the eminent Indologist opines that the civilization revealed at these two places leads one to the inference that it is not an incipient one but had begun ages earlier with many millennia of human endeavour behind it. At Kalibangan the lanes and roads of the city were built in a definite proportion. Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Banawali, Rakhigarhi and Dholavira were some of the important sites of the Harappan civilization. Join The Discussion Its presence implies the existence of a centralized tax collecting agency. Apart from Lothal in Gujarat, the three Harappan sites on the Makran coast – Sutkagendor, Sotkako and Khairia kot have been generally considered to have been posts in the maritime links with the Gulf and Mesopotamia. The IVC residents did not develop irrigation capabilities, relying mainly on the seasonal monsoons leading to summer floods. Lothal in Ahmedabad, near river Sabarmati 7. Surkotada is the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been found. It must have served as the main seaport of the Indus people. The Indus Valley script included over 400 symbols. It has given the substantiation of both pre-Harappan culture in the lower layer and Harappan Civilization in the upper layer. Most of the writing is from left to right and not the other way. The decline of Harappan culture is difficult to explain. The sensational discoveries made at Harappa in West Punjab and Mohenjodaro in Sind have revolutionised our idea of ancient Indian history. From the meagre evidence it may be concluded that the civilization represented by these two cities commonly known as the Indus Valley Civilization belonged to the first half of the third millennium B.C. It is also called the ‘Harappan Civilization’ after the name of its first discovered site. 5. They are a series of brick platforms forming the basis of two rows of six granaries each measuring 50 x 20 feet . In its proto-Harappan phase the fields were ploughed. Many Indus Valley (or Harappan) sites have been discovered along the Ghaggar-Hakra beds. It was surrounded by a stone rubble fortification with square bastions at the corners and in the longer sides. Kiriburu is a residential locale in West Singhbhum district and is situated at a height of 4,300ft from man sea level. The Great Bath of Mohenjodaro is the most important public place measuring 39 feet (length) x23 feet (breadth) x8 feet (depth). Below the citadel in each city lay a town proper. Metalworkers, shell -ornament makers and bead maker’s shops have been discovered here also. The Indus-Valley people were well-acquainted with the use both of cotton and wool. Lal Mahal of Pune is one of the most famous monuments of Pune. Others point out that the Harappan culture was destroyed by the Aryans but there is hardly any evidence of a mass scale confrontation between the two. The artworks of the Indus valley civilization embrace Sculptures, seals, pottery, gold ornaments, terracotta models, etc. There are many unsolved problems relating to the Indus Valley Civilization. This is contrary to the currently held view that all alphabetic writing descended from Phoenician in the late second millennium BC. Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan) It is located in the banks of the river Ravi; It was the first site to be excavated among all the Indus sites. Leg bone of elephant was found at Kalibangan. Below it is an animal with a short thick tail which can be a fox according to S R Rao. They believed that there was life after death because the graves often contained household pottery, ornaments and mirrors which might have belonged to the dead persons and which it was thought he or she might need after death. He also refers to the presence of few fish on the ground. Name the oldest Indian civilization. 28. Banawali (Haryana) was situated on the banks of the now extinct Sarasvati River. A hunting scene showing two antelopes with the hunter is noticed on a pot shreds from the cemetery H.A jar found at Lothal depicts a scene in which two birds are seen perched on a tree each holding a fish in its beak. Lothal has evidence for the earliest cultivation of rice (1800 BC). Spinning and weaving of cotton and wool, pottery making chiefly red clay with geometric designs painted in black, bead making from clay, stone, paste, shell and ivory, seal making, terracotta manufacture and brick laying. Traces of the remains of massive brick walls around both the citadel and the lower town have been discovered here. The streets were all well planned and drains regularly drained out. • Indus Valley Civilization was located on the banks of the river Indus, particularly at the bends that provided water, easy means of transportation of produce and other goods and also some protection by way of natural barriers of the river. Weights and measures which were very accurately graded point to a very high degree of exchange. Brooke further notes that the developmen… A specimens of images made of both stone and metal have been discovered. The rectangular town planning was unique to the Harappans and was not known in Mesopotamia or Egypt. The most characteristic feature of the Harappan Civilization was its urbanization. Another building nearby was either a meeting hall or a market place. It is one of the twin hill stations along with Meghahatuburu. Two of these parts were protected by strong rectangular fortifications. In the last phase of Mohenjodaro, men and women and children were massacred in the streets and houses. But the number of the sites belonging to the mature phase is limited, and of them only half a dozen like Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Kalibangan, Lothal, Chanhu-daro and Banwali can be regarded as cities. The camel was rare and horse was not known. Later, during 1961-69, excavation were carried out by … Since no word in these languages begins with a vowel the writing does not create any problems in comprehension. The merchandise was shipped from Lothal and incoming goods were received here. If the focus then shifts to India, then Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro will undoubtedly come up, but after that, India’s other ancient cities are often overlooked. The common features of all the Indus valley civilizations are as follows: 1. Proper Town planning in all Indus valley cites except few such as Kalibangan. Plants, trees and pipal leaves are found on pottery. The Indus civilization was originally called Harappan civilization after this site. The excavation work was carried by R.S Bisht and his team in 190-91. Besides sheep and goats, dogs, humped cattle buffalo and elephant was certainly domesticated. Features of Indus Valley Civilization. Kiriburu is situated in the state of Jharkhand. 4. The language of the Harappans is still unknown and must remain so until the script is read. Sir John Marshal, Lambrick and E.J.H Mackay suggest that the decline of the Harappan civilization was mainly due to the vagaries of the Indus River. It is the third excavated cityof Harappan sites and the earliest town destroyed by earthquake. Incised ware is rare and the incised decoration was confined to the bases of the pans. Harappa in western Punjab, near river Ravi 2. Near the granaries were the furnaces where the metal workers produced a variety of objects in metals such as copper, bronze, lead and tin. ; It flourished in the Bronze Age (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE, pre-Harappan cultures starting c.7500 BCE) along the Indus River (hence called Indus Valley Civilization) and … Kalibangan is a part of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in present Hanumangarh district. Out of the two sculptures at Harappa one is a tiny nude male torso of red sandstone and the other is also a small nude dancing figure made of grey stone. Ans. Historians have different opinions regarding the causes of the decay and disappearance of the Harappan culture. 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