The major types of land degradation are soil ero-sion, soil salinity, soil acidity and soil contamination. Landscape degradation is evident at a coarse national scale: across Australia millions of hectares of land are affected which would not be had they not been used for agriculture (Pratley and Robertson, 1998). Section 1 In Australia, about two thirds of agricultural land is degraded. (Year Book Australia, 2001, 1301.0) Mining- Mining causes land degradation by the way it works, mainly by open cut mines (mines that are not underground). Also in 1860, A ustralia’s livestock industry now consisted of 0ver 430,000 horses, nearly 4 million cattle, over 20 million sheep and over 350,000 pigs. Australian agricultural industry, with a focus on crop production and sustainability (Dunlop and Turner, 2003; Dunlop et al., 2002). Also mentioned when discussing these are nutrient loss and soil structure decline. Land Degradation in Australia The major causes of land degradation in Australia are those to do with agriculture and industry, things like mining, deforestation, livestock and soil contamination. Accelerating these phenomena are influences such as; land misuse, unregulated farming practices, deforestation, mining, pesticides and fertilizers, and increasing demand for land for other purposes. However, the biophysical processes that have led to this degradation occur at a local scale and are highly variable. ability and land degradation. Although erosion is a natural process it is accelerated by practices such as land clearing, overgrazing, some cultivations and poorly constructed farm roads and dams. This was grounded in an integrated understanding of the history of Australian agriculture and the grains industry, which does more than Similar grants were extended to free migrants and marines in 1789 and by 1860 1.2 million acres were under crop and contributing to Australian agriculture. Soil Erosion The modern agricultural practises, excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides has adversely degraded the natural quality and fertility of the cultivation land. Farms running beef cattle manage more than 77% of the total area of agricultural land in Australia. The phenomena of desertification, salinity, erosion and acidification are major threats to Australian agricultural industry. Desertification in Australia. growing many times faster than the area of land being farmed. In doing so, it draws on the results of a recently completed study on land degradation and the Australian agricul-tural industry that included an experimental analysis of New South Wales agriculture using a state-wide model (Gretton and Salma 1996). Beef cattle farms are an important part of the rural economy in almost all regions of Australia. Erosion removes the best, most fertile part of the soil, the topsoil where most of … The outlook for the Australian land environment will be determined by the choices made to address legacy issues In Australia, the major factors creating land degradation, primarily arising from the removal of natural vegetation (Weebly 2019), include: Wind Erosion – The removal of soil by wind. to land management suggests that decisions are being taken at an appropriate scale—for example, national strategies relating to invasive species, and decisions about agricultural development in northern Australia. 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