[1] With the onset of Operation Rolling Thunder, the strategic aerial bombardment of North Vietnam in April 1965, the U.S. also expanded its interdiction effort in Laos by dividing the Barrel Roll area into two sections on 3 April. Between 1964 and the end of 1967 there were 103,148 tactical air sorties launched against the trail. Rolling Thunder Remembered will provide weekly posts that summarizes Commando Hunt operations and the ground war in remembrance of the more than 150 young Americans that were killed every week prior to Operation Linebacker. The North Vietnamese built, maintained, and expanded, under a deluge of bombs, over 3,000 kilometers of roads and paths through the mountains and jungles while only two percent of the troops sent south were killed by the American effort to halt their infiltration into South Vietnam. Observation of the trail from the air was difficult at best. The operation began on 11 November 1968 and ended on 29 March 1972. Even numbered campaigns took place during the more dormant wet season (June–October). An intelligence collection and technical reassessment effort invited the Air Force to make another attempt to force the North Vietnamese pay for their effort in blood instead of in imported supplies and trucks. They were then utilized in the first sustained bombing of North Vietnam since late 1968 (see Operation Linebacker). [43], The Air Force estimated that during the year there were 3,375 trucks working the trail system in southern Laos, yet it claimed that 12,368 enemy trucks were destroyed during the year. During the year the North Vietnamese began deploying longer-ranged and radar-directed 85 and 100 mm guns. One new innovation that took place during the campaign was renewed interest in personnel infiltration. 6,000 vehicles had been ordered from the Soviet Union alone (as opposed to the usual 3,000) and this seemed to indicate that the enemy was hurting for transportation and that the campaign was working. Lieutenant Yana Belinky of the famed, and feared, Nachthexen - the Night Witches - and Pilot Officer Drew Granger of the RAF had all but died when their Polikarpov had been shot to pieces around them over Russia. — howcheng 17:00, 14 November 2018 (UTC) By 1970 the North Vietnamese were making intense use of streams and rivers to supplement their logistical route, especially in the rainy season, when the water levels rose and the roadways became bottomless mires. As early as 1966 Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara had become increasingly disenchanted with the bombing of the north. This conventional attack, backed by armour, heavy artillery, and anti-aircraft units (including SAMs) rolled over the two northernmost provinces of South Vietnam while two smaller offensives were launched in central and southern parts of the country. The operation to hunt down and destroy the remaining elements of the commando raiders in the Hadrut area is under way. [38], From October 1969 until April 1970 (probably anticipating the loss of their Cambodian supply conduit) the North Vietnamese launched "probably their most intense logistical effort of the whole war. Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial interdiction campaign that took place during the Vietnam War. Construction began on the ISC on 6 July 1967 and was completed within three months.[15]. The results of these drops were likewise inconclusive, and aerial assessments of the program proved just as hard to interpret as post-strike reconnaissance for bombing missions. [44] The buildup of PAVN anti-aircraft defenses continued to increase. The B-52s, tactical fighters and the AC-119 and AC-130 gunships played a major part in the campaigns and the AC-130 Spectre was claimed to be the most effective aircraft in killing trucks. [64] Regardless of the constant American belief that its enemy was on the verge of collapse, PAVN maintained and expanded its logistical flow to combat units in the field and managed to launch major offensives in 1968 and 1972 and a counteroffensive in 1971. The operation began on 11 November 1968 and ended on 29 March 1972. POL barrels were spotted floating in the waters of the Kong River south of Ban Bak, Laos. This lack of real intelligence forced the Air Force to basically take its best guess as to PAVN numbers, intentions, and limitations. The B-57G conducted its first combat missions in October 1970 during Operation Commando Hunt V. Operation Shed Light-Wikipedia They found themselves with only half the U.S. air sorties planned upon, and that commitment for five days only; the brand new Operation Commando Hunt truck killing campaign on the Ho Chi Minh Trail was absorbing the rest. [14], Igloo White consisted of three interrelated parts. By the end of May the North Vietnamese had occupied Muong Phalane, Ban Houei Sai, and Paksong. This process of adaptation and innovation is described in detail in Jack S. Ballard, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Military campaigns involving the United States, Battles and operations of the Vietnam War, Battles and operations of the Vietnam War in 1969, Battles and operations of the Vietnam War in 1970, Battles and operations of the Vietnam War in 1971, Battles and operations of the Vietnam War in 1972, Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group, United States Army Center of Military History, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Operation_Commando_Hunt?oldid=2276971. During one two and one-half month period during 1969, over 10,000 POL barrels were spotted in the waterways of southeastern Laos. [7], And so matters stood until the massive PAVN/NLF Tet Offensive of early 1968. Estimated North Vietnamese supply throughput. Armed with cluster bomb units (CBUs), the fighter bombers were poised to pounce upon any enemy anti-aircraft positions identified by other aircraft. Interdiction missions were then diverted to carry out an even more heavy aerial offensive against the north (see Operation Linebacker II). Systematic U.S. aerial operations against the Ho Chi Minh Trail had begun on 14 December 1964 with Operation Barrel Roll. [18] The PAVN siege against U.S. Marines at the Khe Sanh Combat Base, in western Quang Tri Province, South Vietnam, provided the opportunity for an operational test. On 10 January 1972, a U.S. 0–1 observation aircraft, flying near the Mu Gia Pass, dodged the first surface-to-air missile(SAM) launched from Laotian soil. Since 1961 these tales of excitement, danger and courage under fire, on land, at sea, and in the air, and the dynamic artwork that accompanies them, have won Commando a loyal readership in the UK and around the world! Evolution of North Vietnamese anti-aircraft weapons, 1965–1972. Bekijk schermafdrukken, lees de recentste klantbeoordelingen en vergelijk classificaties voor Army Commando CS Strike. [63] Statistics, however, proved no substitute for strategy and, "for all the perceived success in that numbers game, the Air Force succeeded only in fooling itself into believing that Commando Hunt was working. The lower figures were attributed to the fact that many PAVN air defense units had been moved to the Tchepone area to support the counteroffensive against the South Vietnamese Operation Lam Son 719. The real problem for U.S. planners was a lack of sufficient intelligence on the numbers of infiltrators, the amount of supplies being transported, the number of trucks operating, the specific locations of targets in a rapidly changing environment, and the infrastructure of the system. Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial interdiction campaign that took place during the Vietnam War. Operation Commando Hunt . Both of these threats tended to force off B-52 and tactical air strikes. During the year the North Vietnamese transported or stored 60,000 tons of supplies with a net loss rate of 2.07 percent. These missions were supplemented by 1,718 B-52 strikes. "[48], During Commando Hunt V (10 October 1970 to 30 April 1971) Air Force intelligence claimed 16,266 trucks destroyed and another 7,700 damaged during the dry season offensive. The war against trucks was about to begin. With the signing of the Paris Peace Accord in March 1973, the Vietnam War finally came to an end for the U.S. Commando Hunt II (1 May through 31 October 1969), however, was thrown off track by phenomena that the Air Force could do absolutely nothing about. The British strike force would number fewer than 600 men, a neat package of 3 Commando, a troop and a half of 2 Commando, Royal Engineers from 6 Commando, medics from 4 Commando, some War Office Intelligence officers, and interpreters of the Royal Norwegian Army. As a result, the North Vietnamese seized the towns of Saravane, Paksong, and Attopeu. Further training and replenishment was carried out. [51], The interdiction effort during Commando Hunt VI (15 May through 31 October 1971) was thrown off by Lam Son 719 during April and May. Commando adventure in this offline games for free will be a great fun for cover shooter like you. Despite the expenditure of an enormous amount of ordnance over five years, the level of that pressure was never going to be sufficient to deter Hanoi from its goal. [56] As a result of this all-out effort, U.S. intelligence analysts claimed 10,689 North Vietnamese trucks were destroyed and credited AC-130E Spectres alone with 7,335 of these kills. The green trim at the edges is suggestive of the jungle nature of the conflict. Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial interdiction campaign that took place during the Vietnam War. By 1968 PAVN was relying less on manual labor and increasingly utilizing modern construction equipment. The ambassador (with the full backing of the State Department and the CIA) maintained a firm hold over all military operations conducted within the supposedly "neutral" Kingdom of Laos. Yet, an even lesser estimate of trucks destroyed by the Defense Intelligence Agency only resulted in their computer model reaching zero (where the enemy was supposed to be out of trucks) no fewer that 14 times during the same time period. Commando Hunt VII came to a close with the launching of the PAVN offensive mentioned above. The. Air Force planners believed that Operation Commando Hunt VII (1 November 1971 to 29 March 1972) would be the most fruitful of the entire campaign. A U.S. 0-1 observation aircraft, participating in Operation Commando Hunt VII and flying near the Mu Gia Pass, dodged the first surface-to-air missile (SAM) launched from Laotian soil. The American public (who had been reassured by President Lyndon B. Johnson and the Pentagon that the communists were incapable of launching any such actions) were stunned by the size and ferocity of the offensive. You will never find a more wretched hive of scum and … Despite the massive amount of bombs dropped, the campaigns of Operation Commando Hunt were unable to stop the Communists from sending men and materiel down the Ho Chi Minh Trail to support their … In part, the argument simmered because the stated objectives of Commando Hunt were actually more limited than the currently held construct. The objective of the campaign was to prevent the transit of People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) personnel and supplies on the logistical corridor known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail (the Truong Son Road to the North Vietnamese) that ran from the southwestern Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) through the southeastern portion of the Kingdom of Laos and into the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). On 15 November 1968 the Seventh Air Force was granted authorization for launch of Commando Hunt.[23]. During Commando Hunt III the Seventh/Thirteenth Air Force estimated that 700 23-mm and 37 mm weapons, most of them radar-guided, were defending the trail system in southern Laos. [6] During the same time frame 132 U.S. aircraft or helicopters were shot down over Laos. They were to have two objectives: First, to reduce the enemy's logistical flow by "substantially increasing the time needed to move supplies from North Vietnam to the south;" second, "to destroy trucks and supply caches along the roads, pathways, and streams and in the truck parks and storage areas along the Trail."[11]. On the other side of the fence, the North Vietnamese transported and/or stored 70,000 tons of supplies in 3,000 trucks with a net loss of 13.5 percent during the year. I have the weber 45 sidedraft almost ready with an lathe / milling made intake. The unit participated in most of the significant campaigns of the Vietnam War, including the Gulf of Tonkin incident which precipitated increased American involvement, Operation Steel Tiger, Operation Tiger Hound, the Tet Offensive, Operation Commando Hunt, the Cambodian Campaign, Operation Lam Son 719, and the Easter Offensive. By the time of the opening of Commando Hunt VI, that figure had decreased to 1,199 aircraft and this number dropped to 953 before that phase was completed; Second, this state of affairs was exacerbated by the withdrawal of sorties to conduct missions for Operation Freedom Deal in Cambodia.[53]. Operation Snipe involves marines from 45 Commando British troops are targeting mountains in south-eastern Afghanistan where al-Qaeda terrorists are thought to be hiding out. [25], By the end of Commando Hunt I, the first dry season offensive of the campaign (15 November 1968 to 20 April 1969), the Air Force estimated that 7,322 enemy trucks had been destroyed. Commando is Britain's longest-serving war comic for stories of action and adventure. A shakedown of the system took place during the first two weeks of November 1967 and it seemed to work. [10] By the end of the conflict, U.S. and South Vietnamese aircraft would drop over three million tons of ordnance on Laos, three times the total tonnage dropped on North Vietnam. Commando Hunt provided the figures that sated that appetite. For a detailed history of the interdiction effort from 1961 to 1968 see Jacob Van Staaveren. [49] In fact, there were only 2,500–3,000 PAVN trucks operating on the trail during 1970–1971, each carrying approximately four tons of materiel.[50]. [33] The depth of penetration by these reconnaissance efforts was hampered by the same man who had the last word in the bombing effort, Ambassador William H. Sullivan in Vientiane. The second source of the failure was the utilization of what Colonel Charles Morrison has called "over-sophisticated methods" against "elemental systems. you would like to make sure you destroyed and survive the warfare equipment in last turn duty, health, weapons for ultimate survival in last involve combat operation duty. [21] Unfortunately, the mines rapidly deteriorated in the heat and humidity of Laos, nullifying their effectiveness. The first wet season offensive was hampered by atrocious weather, especially heavy rain (48 inches of rain in July alone). r/swtor: Star Wars™: The Old Republic, a story-driven MMORPG from BioWare and LucasArts. Despite the massive amount of bombs dropped, the campaigns of Operation Commando Hunt were unable to stop the Communists from sending men and materiel down the Ho Chi Minh Trail to support their operations in the south. Soon, PAVN was making use of the Banghiang River which flowed southwestward from the Demilitarized Zone all the way to the Mekong River, for the same purposes. The operation began on 11 November 1968 and ended on 29 March 1972. Copyright © 2021 Rolling Thunder and Commando Hunt Remembered, Commando Hunt: 11-November 1968 to 29 March 1972, ROLLING THUNDER REMEMBERED… Lest We Forget, 50 Year Anniversary – Operation Rolling Thunder, Vietnam Air Losses – Chris Hobson & Dave Lovelady, OVER WAR – Cade Martin Photography – THUD VOICES, Distinguished Flying and Stories Heard at Happy Hour, Introducing the Intruder to Rolling Thunder – RADM Rupe Owens, The Origin of Rolling Thunder as Mighty Thunder, COLONEL JACKSEL M. BROUGHTON – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, LIEUTENANT COLONEL WILLIAM EARL COOPER – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, COLONEL LAWRENCE NICHOLAS GUARINO – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, LELAND THORNTON KENNEDY – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, CAPTAIN DAREL DEAN LEETUN – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, DEAN ANDREW POGREBA, LIEUTENANT COLONEL – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAMES ROBINSON RISNER – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, MAJOR WILLIAM P. ROBINSON – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, COLONEL NORMAN SCHMIDT – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, MAJOR PATRICK HARDY WOOD – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, LIEUTENANT ROBERT W. BURNAND, JR. – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, LIEUTENANT, JUNIOR GRADE DIETER DENGLER – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, CAPTAIN TRENT RICHARD POWERS – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, LIEUTENANT COMMANDER JESSE JUNIOR TAYLOR – EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM, MAJOR MERLYN HANS DETHLEFSEN – CONSPICUOUS GALLANTRY AND INTREPIDITY, CAPTAIN (THEN LCDR) MICHAEL J. ESTOCIN – CONSPICUOUS GALLANTRY AND INTREPIDITY. Operation Commando Hunt was a covert U.S.Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial interdiction campaign that took place during the Vietnam War.The operation began on 15 November 1968 and ended on 29 March 1972. The presence and movements of enemy troops were to be detected by the utilization of small, wide-area Gravel mines that were to alert the acoustic sensors. So too shall you join with three brothers and become fierce hunters for the Republic. For instance, Air Force intelligence claimed that 9,012 enemy trucks were destroyed during 1969. Key features of Army Commndo Battlefield Hunt Survival: Please reconcile the discrepancy. This aspect of the PAVN effort had been virtually ignored since the initiation of the Commando Hunt in 1968. Siranush Ghazanchyan Send an email October 12, 2020, 10:56. [55] Commando Hunt VI, launched during the wet season, was hampered by heavy rain and the arrival of two typhoons which threw off both the PAVN logistical effort and U.S. attempts to interdict it. The result was Island Tree the launching of a personnel anti-infiltration effort during Commando Hunt VII. During Commando Hunt III (1 November 1969 to 30 April 1970), the Air Force claimed that 6,428 enemy trucks destroyed and another 3,604 damaged. [44] The Seventh Air Force headquarters in Saigon, chagrined by the enormity of the figures, recomputed them and lowered the estimate to 11,000 destroyed and 8,000 damaged. During the campaign, however, ominous signs appeared in the … [42] The Kaman River was added to the system in 1969. Click for larger image Awarded for In-theatre service during the Operation Period, 15 Nov 1969 to 29 Mar 1972. Missions conducted by CIA-backed Laotian irregulars and Thai volunteers operating on the western flank of the trail (and the Lon Nol coup in Cambodia) prompted PAVN to launch offensives in Laos to protect and expand their system. But this early step didn't work. This dry season area interdiction campaign in Laos terminates on 10 April 1970. This failure had three sources. And there were already problems with the system. operation COMMANDO HUNT II information For date 691101 Primary service involved, US Air Force Operation COMMANDO HUNT II Laos Description: Operation COMMANDO HUNT II begins. Productivity epitomized what the war had become: an exercise in management effectiveness. "[31] He was seconded by historian Earl Tilford who explained that, "Americans expected progress, or at least quantifiable measures of success...It is in their nature to do so. 60 aircraft were shot down during this phase of the campaign by an estimated 743 anti-aircraft weapons. The plastic line, assisted by numerous small pumping stations, could transfer diesel fuel, gasoline, and kerosene all in the same pipe. Star Wars: Republic Commando - Delta 62 (Ellis) Odd numbered campaigns took place during PAVN's high activity period, which occurred during the dry season (November–May). [3] By early the following year the pipeline had crossed the Laotian frontier and by summer it had reached Muong Nong and the approaches to the Ashau Valley. The light at the end of the tunnel had been extinguished, if it had ever existed at all. All U.S. and South Vietnamese air assets were diverted to first slowing, and then halting the onslaught. [51] Although only 11 aircraft were brought down by air defense fire during the dry season, this lower level of destroyed aircraft was not the result of any U.S. countermeasures. Due to the failure of the anti-personnel portion of the system, the targets of Commando Hunt were trucks, the infrastructure of the trail (truck parks, supply caches, POL storage, etc. The mission of the Ground Studies Group was to support the sensor-driven Operation Commando Hunt, which saw the rapid expansion of the bombing of the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Thank you. [41] Although fighting continued in these areas, what had once been a 30-mile (48 km) wide logistical corridor was now expanded to 90 miles (140 km). The seed of the campaign's failure, however, was sown in its first operation. During the offensive, 80 percent of all U.S. aerial sorties were directed to support it. In 1967 U.S. recon photographs uncovered an unusual sight. During Commando Hunt, for example, 1,777 aircraft were utilized during the campaign. It was a daunting challenge. Although a huge haul of enemy weapons, munitions, and foodstuffs was captured and although this effort did buy time for the new American policies of withdrawal and Vietnamization, the downside of the operation for the Cambodian people was horrendous. On 17 June 1967 the title of the program was altered to Illinois City and on 15 July to Dyemarker, the electronic barrier portion of which was designated Muscle Shoals. "[47], As the operation progressed, newer technologies (low-light television cameras, infrared vision devices, side-looking radars, radar jamming equipment, and computer-directed fire control systems) were also fielded to improve the performance of these aircraft. By the end of the year the Americans felt that they were better prepared to deliver destruction to the trail system. The aerial interdiction campaign known as Operation COMMANDO HUNT begins. [22] The freeing of aircraft (Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps) that had previously been participating in Rolling Thunder, when combined with those from Steel Tiger and Tiger Hound (which were both superseded by Commando Hunt), promised to create an interdiction effort of unprecedented scale. There was a lack of sufficient numbers of sensor strings and controlling the number of aircraft available for the missions proved problematic. [13] This was the origin of the so-called "McNamara Fence. Finally, all of the above were exacerbated by the communist's enviable ability to adapt their doctrine and tactics and to turn weaknesses into strengths. The unit participated in most of the significant campaigns of the Vietnam War, including the Tonkin Gulf Incident which precipitated American involvement, Operation Steel Tiger, Operation Tiger Hound, the Tet Offensive, Operation Commando Hunt, the Cambodian Campaign, Operation Lam … I am now getting deeper into odd ideas on my 850 project. The CIA estimated during the year the 259th Group was using 20 bulldozers, eleven road graders, three rock crushers and two steamrollers on the network. The apex of these developments was reached by the deployment of the AC-130E Spectre, a conversion of the venerable C-130 Hercules cargo transport, in February 1968. "[32], It was, however, difficult for the Air Force to do otherwise. The U.S. also assumed an abiding responsibility for the survival of the Lon Nol regime and this siphoned off air support from Commando Hunt III (1 May through 9 October 1970).[40]. I remember it worked well on my Bonneville years ago. These difficulties could be remedied. Operation Commando Hunt was a covert U.S. Commando Hunt VI: from 1971-05-15 to 1971-10-31]] Consolidation I: ... Operation Frequent Wind: from 29 April 1975 to 30 April 1975. [4] From April through June 1966 there were 400 B-52 anti-infiltration sorties against the system. [8] The president, in an attempt to nudge Hanoi to the negotiating table, decreed an end to bombing operations in North Vietnam north of the 20th parallel, effectively ending Rolling Thunder on 11 November 1968.[9]. The hand emplacement of sensors and bomb damage assessment missions were to be carried out by the reconnaissance teams of the highly classified Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group (SOG), which already operated "over the fence" in Laos. "[26] 56 allied aircraft were shot down during the operation by an estimated 600 communist anti-aircraft weapons. At the rate of attrition claimed in December, however, the PAVN transportation network should have been destroyed in only a month and a half. As a result of this all-out effort, U.S. intelligence analysts claimed 10,689 North Vietnamese trucks were destroyed and credited AC-130E Spectres alone with 7,335 of these kills. The anti-infiltration effort would be supported by MSQ-77 Combat Skyspot, a ground-based radar bombing system first introduced in Southeast Asia in 1966 to direct B-52 strikes in poor weather or in complete darkness. It also claimed that 20,723 enemy had been killed by air, 15 percent of the total number believed to have been travelling on, operating, or defending the trail. OPERATION COMMANDO HUNT SUCCEEDED OPERATION ROLLING THUNDER as the plan to “decrease the logistical flow from North Vietnam by lengthening the time it took the North Vietnamese to move war materials and personnel into South Vietnam.”…. [27] The end of Rolling Thunder, it seemed, had freed up not only U.S. aircraft, but also allowed more PAVN anti-aircraft units to move south to defend the trail. The U.S. was going to field its latest technology in its attempt to make the North Vietnamese pay for their continued effort to unite the two Vietnams. 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