Natural disasters can lead to poverty due to loss of income and income generating resources. Can Med Assoc J 179(5):399–399. Therefore, the communities are at high risk of contracting infectious diseases from contaminated water. Associations and ties within a community are needed to give a sense of identity and purpose to these communities. It Access to credit and ability to borrow: Access to credit and ability to obtain loans allows for diversification . Education exposes an individual to new dimensions including reading and writing that are required to improve and attain skills . Middle-East J Sci Res 15(2):191–199. J Microfinance/ESR Rev 7(2):13–31. After a natural disaster people move to camps or other areas of safety, which in most occasions are very crowded. We applied the sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA) as a conceptual framework [36,37,38,39] to assess the households’ access to livelihood assets, their activities and reported outcomes, and the contextual factors that influence them. SpringerPlus 4(1):122. At the family level, the more the skills in a household, the more they can venture into different markets thereby widening their ability to make money and support their family. Retrieved from. Human behaviour has resulted in a range of environmental and ecological changes, some of which have influenced emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases . The rural poor will mostly be involved in part-time and casual labour that does not require skills. However, ability to raise collateral and to pay back the loan is critical in fuelling diversification; otherwise poverty levels have increased with resultant loss of assets for non-payment of loans. All the five SL assets outlined above are important aspects to livelihood both in the urban and rural setting. A person's livelihood (derived from life-lode, "way of life"; cf. It focuses particularly on questions relating to the extent to which WSD activities result in the creation of new livelihood opportunities and to extent to which these opportunities are both equitably … Moll HA (2005) Microfinance and rural development: a long-term perspective. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and is passed on from animals to humans through contact with urine from infected livestock and rodents. Agric Econ Res Rev 25(1). World Dev 38(1):48–63. Stemming from theory regarding sustainable development, a sustainable livelihood approach incorporates the collective concerns for environmental and economic resources and individual focus. This is further complicated by diseases that emerge after the natural disaster. Not logged in The five assets in sustainable livelihood are human capital , physical capital, social capital, financial capital and natural capital. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. J Agric Econ 51(2):289–302. the caste system in India. Lack of safe water is a major problem after occurrence of a natural disaster . The two communities described above are exposed to two different environments and will likely be exposed to different animals and insects in their habitats. Combining microfinance and health campaigns could assist in disseminating the needed information regarding health issues, including disease prevention and control. The SL framework is applicable to both rural and urban survival strategies. Bull World Health Organ 87(11):824–832. These challenges can determine whether and how this individual or household will diversify. These communities tend to develop habits that later on become the norm for that community from what surrounds them. With poor surveillance in most developing countries, it is very difficult to track disease occurrence. Quirós R, Gonzalez-Vega C (2007) LATIN AMERICA COSTA RICA FINCA. xiv+273 The ‘‘livelihoods approach’’ has become popular in the debate on poverty reductionduring the last decade, and there is an ever-growing body of literature on the topic. Therefore education is a necessary investment for human capital. In most rural areas of the world, approximately 90 % of the population is involved in farming as a way of earning a living. Public Health, Sharma A (2001) Developing sustainable microfinance systems. Most people in rural areas in developing countries are already struggling with poverty and while microfinance schemes might provide financial security to some, shocks such as disease can easily affect the financial stability of a poor household. Spontaneous livelihoods; that are taken up due to desperate situations where what an individual does is in principle determined by social economic and ecological situation. Natural disasters result in loss of lives, property and livelihoods . Davis JR, Wilson S, Brock-Martin A, Glover S, Svendsen ER (2010b) The impact of disasters on populations with health and health care disparities. These labourers do not own land of their own, thus are forced to work in the lands of richer farmers. The near absence of voices from livelihoods nonprofits on the debates on farm acts 2020 has been a disconcerting phenomenon. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Infectious Diseases and Rural Livelihood in Developing Countries Cite as. Buckley G (1997) Microfinance in Africa: is it either the problem or the solution? Gibbs A, Willan S, Misselhorn A, Mangoma J (2012) Combined structural interventions for gender equality and livelihood security: a critical review of the evidence from southern and eastern Africa and the implications for young people. Increase in the dependency ratio puts more pressure on the household and decreases the ability of the household to meet their needs. Assam State Rural livelihoods Mission (ASRLM) focuses on stabilizing and promoting existing livelihoods portfolio of the poor through three pronged approach- 1. A brief overview of sustainable livelihoods approaches. Owing to displacement and/or damage of water sources, people who have survived a natural disaster tend to drink water from unsafe sources. Even though microfinance has helped others to boost their businesses and attain financial security to others, it is the contrary (Kondo et al. Rural population is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population. This trend has been observed in Uganda , Kenya , Nigeria , and Malawi . A livelihood approach to water interventions in rural areas and implications for Multiple Use Systems Among all constraints to development, water has been systematically highlighted as one of the most important challenges to rural poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa. Increase in population; this means with increase in food demands, there is more pressure to produce enough food and enough income to sustain growing families. relevance to rural livelihood analysis explain the livelihoods concept and critically appraise the use of sustainable livelihoods frameworks for rural livelihood analysis consider, with examples, the effects of interactions of change among peasant livelihoods within the rural … Boccia D, Hargreaves J, Lönnroth K, Jaramillo E, Weiss J, Uplekar M, Evans CA (2011) Cash transfer and microfinance interventions for tuberculosis control: review of the impact evidence and policy implications. Cohen CR, Steinfeld RL, Weke E, Bukusi EA, Hatcher AM, Shiboski S, Weiser SD (2015) Shamba Maisha: pilot agricultural intervention for food security and HIV health outcomes in Kenya: design, methods, baseline results and process evaluation of a cluster-randomized controlled trial. It focuses on the livelihoods of poor people, the complexity of those livelihoods, and the associated opportunities and constraints. Seiber EE, Robinson AL (2007) Microfinance investments in quality at private clinics in Uganda: a case-control study. The Sustainable Rural Livelihood Approach was considered to be the most promising of the various options. The sustainable livelihood approach offers a holistic and integrative approach with the capacity to analyse and understand the complexity of rural development (Chambers and Conway 1991; Solesbury 2003). This migration involves moving to areas where they can find work in the form of hired labour, or to towns where they can start up more businesses. Odi N, Olukotu GA, Emmanuel A (2013) Impact of microfinance on rural transformation in Nigeria. Ellis F (2000) The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries. As a result the poor make very little income, which results in failure to create opportunities that could earn them more money, and they are denied opportunities to improve their status—an example of low human capital (Ellis 1996). Rural livelihood strategies are often heavily reliant on the natural resource base. In India and many parts of sub-Saharan Africa and most developing countries, farmers are opting for diversification rather than farming only as the small-scale farming or land -based livelihood are proving unsustainable and cannot support their families for food and fodder for their livestock. While a small family with a steady income will be able to invest in skills training that can allow for diversification . The sustainable livelihoods approach encourages thinking out of the box. Some of the activities that fall under rural livelihood include: Animal herding including livestock farming ; Artisan work , for example, weaving and carving; Providing services in transport and other available services; A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources , claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks , maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the next generation; and which contributes net benefits to other livelihoods at the local and global levels and in the short and long term (Chambers and Conway 1991). Ellis F (1996) Rural livelihood diversity in developing countries: evidence and policy implications, (40). Geissler KH, Leatherman S (2015) Providing primary health care through integrated microfinance and health services in Latin America. Since the groups are comprised of individuals who know each other, there is a sense of belonging as well as a sense of ownership as each member has invested the same amount of money and is part of the decision-making process. This problem is worse in rural areas as the response from governments and aid agencies usually takes a couple of days or weeks before reaching the remote rural settlements. If an individual is able to read and write they have a higher chance of choosing an appropriate field of work or further skills training in order to advance their livelihoods . ID 2522735). The reliance on agriculture though tends to decrease when household income levels rise, as observed in sub-Saharan Africa . Small-scale businesses such as hawking, selling of second-hand clothes, car parts and scrapped metal and goods, selling readymade food are on the rise. Int Lett Od Soc Humanistic Justice 21:84–90. It also highlights the main conclusions reached, arguing that the sustainable rural livelihood approach can play an important role in the elimination of poverty. It frees development practitioners from conventional approaches that are often restricted to identifying problems and findingsolutions. Instead of improving their livelihoods, to some microfinance has plunged them into utter poverty. consumption of exotic foods , e.g. This in turn fuels inequalities and vulnerable communities resort to livelihoods that are unsustainable, affecting the health and well-being of both men and women in different ways (Kim et al. Dependency ratio: measures the pressure on the productive population . Livelihood enhancement - Through deepening/enhancing and expanding existing livelihoods options and tapping new opportunities in farm and non-farm sectors Lack of assets such as money, land , and houses that can be used as collateral to get loans, or sold in order for a household to get extra income, can affect the extent of diversification . The focus of BRAC has been on human development through adult literacy, vocational training, public health and improvement of livelihoods. Microfinance is therefore not only a source of income, but one way to develop a community to attain sustainable livelihoods. By creating social groups and networks within the community, people have been able to start up credit cooperatives where each member can invest a certain amount of money, and thereafter the members are able to borrow the money for their own use. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. pp 17-34 | Literacy opens channels that can help access credit and loans that can be used as start-up capital and or extra capital to advance a particular livelihood . Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. While I was taken aback—as a long-time rural livelihoods worker—I knew some of it was true. The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH, Khatun D, Roy BC (2012) Rural livelihood diversification in West Bengal: determinants and constraints. These networks are beneficial in obtaining knowledge that can be used to further livelihoods . Being able to read and write allows an individual to access information in books, posters and any other literature that could be useful in developing their talent and learning new skills. Access and availability of irrigation facility: technology such as irrigation and availability of irrigation facilities to farmers can help boost the income of farmers and their households . Sustainable livelihood (SL) framework is a term that covers research concerning poverty reduction, sustainability and livelihood strategies. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15(6):37–49. 2003; Nasir 2013; Swope 2007). There is a common pattern in most developing countries where the very poor and those who are relatively well-off tend to have a more diverse livelihood than the middle range income earners (Ellis 1996). Natural disasters contribute to emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases. Yadav RK (2014) Significance of microfinance institutions in rural development of India. Availability of capital allows for growth of a business through innovation, diversification and skill enhancement; i.e. Kondo T, Orbeta A, Dingcong C, Infantado C (2008) Impact of microfinance on rural households in the Philippines. 2009). Human capital is an asset in diversification for rural livelihoods because the more the skills attained by a household the easier it is to diversify. 2009). BRAC was also able to train community health workers who served the health needs in their communities. In order for a livelihood to be sustainable, and for a household to survive, there is need for a household to diversify. The 'livelihoods' approach (sometimes also known as the sustainable livelihoods or SL approach) is now widely used in analysing and addressing poverty in developing countries. World Dev 25(7):1081–1093. In rural populations where their livelihood is dependent on land and other natural resources , a natural disaster deprives these communities of their human capital. sustainable livelihoods framework (Figure 1). Kollmann TR, Bortolussi R, MacDonald NE (2015) MicroResearch—finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges in East Africa. © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016, Infectious Diseases and Rural Livelihood in Developing Countries, http://web.undp.org/drylands/docs/Governance.pdf, http://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(97)00022-3, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.01.003, http://ww.smallstock.info/reference/ODI/odinrp40.pdf, http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-9552.2000.tb01229.x, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.03.013, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2015.04.022, http://ifmr.ac.in/cmf/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/mf-mdgs-morduch.pdf, http://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.15.2.2306, www.Unescap.org/drpad/projects/fin_dev2/adbsharma.Pdf, http://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILSHS.21.84, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0428-5_2, Natural Disasters/Shocks and Rural Livelihood. Since members decide on the conditions of repayment, the conditions are manageable. OG lib-leit) refers to their "means of securing the basic necessities (food, water, shelter and clothing) of life".Livelihood is defined as a set of activities essential to everyday life that are conducted over one's life span. In a household dependency ratio measures the ability of the household to sustain and meet their needs. People move to new areas in search for work and a better life, this migration determines the choice of livelihoods. After flooding or storms and earthquakes, there are water pools that are created and since the water is stagnant, these pools become breeding grounds for mosquitoes which in turn spread vector-borne diseases such as malaria . Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness 4(1):30–38. INTRODUCTION. Rollins Undergraduate Res J 2(1):9. Consumption of exotic foods; in rural areas , consumption of exotic foods such as bush meat is a common practice. A holistic, coordinated approach by stakeholders can help create solutions that make it possible for vulnerable rural households to escape the recurring cycle of emergency food aid … Being able to write allows an individual to express their views in writing. There are several factors that affect emergence and re-emergence of diseases, these include: Barbier EB, Hochard JP (2014) Poverty and the spatial distribution of rural population (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. Those who did not have an education were able to access education through BRACS training programmes. A concept of micro Research or microgrants was put forward where small grants could be provided to researchers in developing countries (Boccia et al. Kim J, Ferrari G, Watts C, Hargreaves J, Morison L, Phetla G, Abramsky T (2009) Assessing the incremental effects of combining economic and health interventions: the IMAGE study in South Africa. 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( ASRLM ) focuses on stabilizing and promoting existing livelihoods options and tapping new opportunities in farm non-farm... Fundamental in rural and urban livelihoods the pressure on the household and decreases the ability the. Trend has been successful because individuals see the benefits from their participation ( Kondo et al communities are high. A few seconds to upgrade your browser Maisha ; Agricultural intervention and HIV health outcomes ( et... While maintaining the current emerging diseases are zoonotic meaning that they are transferred from animals to.... Others conflicts are the main causes of migration that have resulted in the urban and rural I... And human development is the key to literacy to neighbouring countries decide the. A household can be of benefit to a household to meet rural livelihood approach needs natural resource base livelihoods!